Land surveying is a critical component of modern construction. Engineers, builders and other professionals rely on the land surveying process to establish reference points that guide the construction process. The reference points or markers are a result of appropriate coordinate systems chosen for your project. Certainly, the land surveying practice has seen lots of changes over the years. Traditional methods gradually gave way to modern techniques that fit today's market requirements — GPS mapping and referencing is an example of such advances. Read the following piece to learn the nitty-gritty of land surveying for construction:
Modern Technology in Use
Today's land surveyors must employ state-of-the-art technology to meet your unique demands. The most popular options in this category are:
- Robotic total stations (RTS) – An RTS is a land surveying instrument that enables the completion of a land surveying layout by one person. It's a shift from the norm that requires surveyors to have a layout team. Usually, the RTS comes loaded with a three-dimensional or two-dimensional building model. The model identifies survey points and locates them on the actual site. All this happens with the help of software controls on tablets or other handy devices.
- Theodolites – Theodolites help surveyors to determine the distance and location of a point by forming triangles. They are effective at measuring precise vertical and horizontal angles in a process called triangulation.
Land Surveys Used for Construction
There are several land surveys used when it comes to construction. The first one is a standard land survey, often used to describe boundary lines and compute the land area available for construction. Carrying out this survey helps you define essential metrics such as the square footage of the structure. Secondly, you need an engineering land survey that ensures your building sits in the right position on the site. This is essential for ensuring your building has the right footing, elevation and other features.
Coordinate Systems Employed
Land surveying often uses geodesic coordinates when surveying the existing conditions of a construction site. However, the narrative changes when it comes to construction projects. The coordinate system that is used has to match the project in question. For instance, the station or chainage system suits road construction. The surveyor sets up a chain of suitable length to correspond with the road's centreline. When builders start working on the project, they will locate the features according to the survey's elevation, offset or chainage results. The term offset means the relative right or left side of the chainage line.
Contact a land surveyor to learn more.